of the Earth Formation.
Duration of each of the six days of Creation was estimated based on the author’s original hypothesis on gradual increase of the Earth’s rotation speed and taken into consideration the conventional data on the age of the Earth and the time of the Cambrian explosion. In relation to this concept, a treatment of the causes of setting in the glacial periods, destruction of the green cover of the Earth, as well as the Permian Catastrophe and the extinction of dinosaurs at biblical times is given.
As it is known, two versions of Universe appearance exist: that stated in the Bible, and the other based on scientific data. Briefly they are as follows. According to the Bible, G-d created the Universe within six days, the Earth being formed at the first day and the human being by the end of the sixth day. According to scientific views, the age of Earth makes up 4.7 bln years . Besides, at biblical times a series of planetary events occurred on Earth during its formation, which are known from science, but not referred to in the Bible. The aim of this article is to establish correspondence between biblical chronology of the Earth formation and scientific concepts . For this reason, let us adduce some data on the Earth’s formation from both Bible and scientific literature, starting from the biblical concept of the appearance of Earth.
1.1 Biblical data.
Heaven and Earth were created in the first day, as well as light. This concept may be understood so that all celestial bodies (planets and other), including Earth, arose simultaneously. Light creation may be understood as appearance of a light source that illuminated Earth, making it possible to separate day from night. The biblical words “And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the first day” prove the possibility to determine the time starting from evening till morning through night till the other evening. It should be stressed that there is no direct indication in the Bible that the Earth started to rotate after being created. However alternating day and night proves the Earth rotation.
In the second day of creation the canopy inside water was formed and water was separated from water: water under the canopy from water over the canopy. One could suppose that it might present a thick cloudy layer. The arch was called “the canopy of heaven”. Presently there is no canopy and no water over it. It does not mean that no canopy existed at universe creation. It may be supposed that the canopy vanished many millions years later and the water could pour out to the ground during the flood, when it run within 40 days and nights covering the Earth with a thick layer, including high mountains.
In the third day of creation water collected under the canopy and dry land appeared. Water collections were called seas, dry land – earth. It was covered with weed and trees.
In the forth day heavenly bodies appeared: the big body, Sun, illuminating the Earth in the daytime, and the smaller bodies, the moon and stars, in the night. These heavenly bodies, separating light from darkness, had become signs of day and night thus allowing timing. As noted above, all the heavenly bodies were created within the first day, including luminary bodies. It could be understood that at the fourth day they were distributed at their places, their functions and orbits being determined.
In the fifth day of creation living beings appeared - fishes, all reptiles in water, and winged birds on Earth.
In the sixth day, next living beings were created: terrestrial beasts, cattle and all reptiles. At the end of this day of creation, the human beings, man and woman, were created in G-d’s image. The seventh day was Shabbat, when Almighty rested.
1.2. Scientific data.
Further, let us shortly mention the scientific data about Earth development during “biblical times”. The Universe arose as a result of a primary explosion (Big Bang) about 15 bln years ago. This is significantly proven by the expansion of the Universe and its being filled with relict radiation from the primary flash. The Earth and all other celestial bodies were formed from materials, that appeared as a result of the explosion mentioned.
At the starting stage, the temperature of the Earth surface was high enough, water remaining vaporous. Gradually Earth’s temperature dropped, vapor condensation took place and the whole surface of the Earth cooled down. 750 mln years ago the Earth was covered with a 100 m thick layer of ice and the temperature was about minus 30°C. 570 mln years ago the Earth was in fact a snow ball . Approximately 530 mln years ago the Earth made a “somersault” in the cosmos that caused displacement of its rotation axis by 90°, and the main terrestrial continents changed their disposition to contemporary . Simultaneously, i.e. 530 mln years ago, the Cambrian Explosion, that is impetuous appearance of maritime fauna (many new biological species), occurred . At this period multicellular organisms of the present type appeared first in the history. This sudden appearance was not anticipated by any preliminary gradual alteration and complication processes. Investigation of the cause of Cambrian Explosion are being carried out during at least 150 years. They gained a lot of witty guesses but no exhaustive answer has been obtained.
From geological literature it is known that :
- 245 mln years ago the Permian Catastrophe took place, when about 95% of the whole fauna perished;
- 195 mln years ago at the Jurassic Epoch the first animals, early dinosaurs appeared on the Earth;
- 65 mln years ago a mass scale of extinction of dinosaurs occurred;
- In the “biblical times” of Earth’s formation, the weeds sprouted and perished afterwards.
2. Quantitative correspondence between the biblical and the scientific
Now let us start with quantitative assessment of the correspondence between the biblical and the present day duration. Both in the biblical epoch and presently, the day and night duration was determined by the time of one revolution of the Earth around its axis. Our basic assumption regarding the biblical time is that Earth rotation started from zero speed gradually rising and therefore the duration of six revolutions appears millions or even billions times longer than contemporary 24 hours.
The total duration of all the six biblical days of creation correspond to the age of Earth, which equals approximately 4.7 bln years.
As mentioned above, the scientifically established fact is that about 530 mln years ago the Cambrian Explosion occurred and suddenly a lot of multicellular species appeared contemporarily. According to the Bible, this phenomenon had taken place at the fifth day of creation. Thus one may suppose that the fifth day started about 530 mln years ago.
Similarly, it may be supposed that the sixth day of creation began about 195 mln of years ago, when, according to geological data, the first beasts, early dinosaurs, appeared on the Earth .
In correspondence with the above listed prerequisites, let us estimate the duration of the biblical six days of creation.
The equation of Earth rotation (as a solid body) is:
I – inertia moment of the Earth;
M – applied external moment of rotation;
j - turning angle;
t – current time.
For the first four days of creation that elapsed about 530 mln years ago, no jerks in Earth’s rotation are known from scientific data. Therefore the external moment of rotation applied to the Earth may be taken for these days as constant, and integration of the above equation can be carried out, yielding
where A = M/I.
For the first day of creation we have
where T1 is the full iime of one revolution in the first day.
For the second day we fined
where T2 is the full iime of one revolution in the second day. This implies:
Similarly, for the third and fourth days of creation one obtains:
The total time of the first four days makes up:
As noted above, 530 mln years ago, i.e., at the beginning of the fifth day of creation, a jerk in Earth rotation occurred. Therefore it would be a mistake to calculate T5 and T6 following the same procedure. As according to our concept the fifth day started 530 millions years ago, it can be admitted that
T5 + T6 = 530. As said above, the sixth day began 195 mln years ago, so that T6 may be taken equal to 195 mln years, which yields
T5 = 335.
The total time of the six days of creation makes up
T0 =(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 ) + ( T5 + T6) = 2T1 + 530 mln years.
The age of Earth making up T0 = 4.7 bln years, we obtain
T1 = (4.7 – 0.53)/2 = 2.085 bln years,
T5 =0.335 , T6 = 0.195 bln years.
To summarize, our calculations yielded the following:
1. The first day of creation began 4.7 bln. years ago, went on 2.085 bln years, and ended 2.615 bln years ago;
2. The second day of creation began 2.615 bln years ago, went on 0.863 bln years, and finished 1.752 bln years ago;
3. The third day of creation began 1.752 bln years ago, went on 663 mln years, and ended 1.089 bln years ago;
4. The fourth day of creation began 1.089 bln years ago, went on 559 mln years, and ended 530 mln years ago;
5. The fifth day of creation began 530 mln years ago, went on 335 mln years, and ended 195 mln years ago;
6. The sixth day of creation started 195 mln years ago, and went on approximately as many years (the total duration of the subsequent days is neglectible).
One more important issue should be emphasized. According to the Bible, by the end of the sixth day G-d Almighty stopped any activities. In the framework of our concept, this event is interpreted as cessation of the influence of the external moment upon the Earth’s rotation. By the end of the sixth day the Earth rotation became at constant angular speed, i.e.1 revolution per 24 hours. As our analysis shows, by the end of the fourth day of creation the speed of Earth rotation was considerably lower than this value. Therefore starting from a certain moment the speed of Earth rotation had to rise gradually till the above mentioned final rate. One may suppose, that such an additional increase in Earth rotation began at the moment of rotation jerk, that took place about 530 mln years ago , and lasted till the end of sixth day.
Let us now consider the effect of this gradual increase of Earth rotation speed on the Earth formation in biblical times. Due to the slow gradual increase of rotation a considerable part of Earth surface including seas undergoes solar illumination for a long time (for many millions of years), while the other part of the Earth remains not illuminated. As a result of penetration of solar rays through a thick cloudy layer over heavenly firmament (see above, the second day of creation), favorable climatic conditions of intense growing of green cover of the Earth and active breed of sea fauna take place on the illuminated side of the Earth. By contrast, on the non-illuminated side of the Earth the environmental temperature is very low, the land and sea are covered with ice and snow, and hence the glacial period takes place. As the Earth slowly rotated, the illuminated and non-illuminated parts of its surface gradually changed places: previously illuminated areas turned to be non-illuminated and covered with glaciers, whereas the old glaciers turned to be exposed to sun rays thus melting.
It was mentioned above that 750 mln years ago the Earth was covered with a hundred meters thick ice layer but the temperature was equal about minus 30°C, and 570 mln years ago the Earth presented a snowball. According to the proposed theory not the whole territory could at that time be in such a state, but only that on the non-illuminated terrestrial side. This period corresponds to the second half of the fourth day of creation, when only a certain part of the Earth was not illuminated.
Thus at the transition of terrestrial sections with seas from the illuminated side to the non-illuminated side, planetary events take place on this part of the globe: a glacial period sets in, and as a result, the green cover of the Earth and sea fauna perish. So the second half of the fifth day of creation elapsed approximately from 363 mln years ago till 195 mln years ago, when the corresponding part of the globe was not illuminated. According to the above data just at this period the Perm Catastrophe occurred 245 mln years ago. The second half of the sixth day of creation elapsed roughly from 98.5 mln years ago till the end of this day when a corresponding part of the globe was not illuminated. Just at this period, 65 mln years ago occurred the worldwide extinction of the dinosaurs.
Many millions of years after perishing of the green Earth cover it was transformed into coal, and the sea fauna transformed to oil and gas. It is worthwile to mention that, according to geological data , no essential quantities of oil were formed before the Cambrian Explosion, whereas after the Permian Catastrophe after a lapse of a considerable time indispensable for oil generation from the initial materials, about 50% of world oil stock was formed.
Yielding from a basic suggestion of gradual increase of the speed of Earth rotation in biblical times, fundamental results have been obtained including ascertainment of a correspondence between the duration of day in the biblical time and at the present, between the events known from geology and those in biblical times of Earth creation, finding out the cause of these planetary events.
It is extremely important that our consideration of the biblical version planetary events yields timing estimates that are in good agreement with the conventional geological data. This is a convincing argument in favor of the basic assumption regarding the gradual increase of the speed of Earth rotation in the biblical times.
1. Hoffman, P. F., Kaufman, A. Y., Halverson, P. G., Schrag, D.P., A Neo-protozoic Snowball Earth. Science, 28 August 1998, Vol. 281, 1342 – 1346.
2. Kirschvink,j.l., Rippdan, R.L., Evans, D.A., Evidence for a Large-Scale Reorganization of Early Cambrian 3. 3. Continental Masses by Inertial Interchange True Polar Wandler. Science, 25 July 1997, Vol. 277, 541-54
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